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Environmental Microbiology for Engineers, Second Edition

Volodymyr Ivanov
Publication Date:
November 18, 2015
Content Details:
413 pages

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  • About the Book

    Book Summary

    Updated Edition Includes a New Chapter and Enhanced Study Material

    The second edition of Environmental Microbiology for Engineers explores the role that microorganisms play in the engineered protection and enhancement of an environment. Offering a perfect balance of microbiological knowledge and environmental biotechnology principles, it provides a practical understanding of microorganisms and their functions in the environment and in the environmental engineering systems. The book also presents a quantitative description of applied microbiological processes and their engineering design. This updated edition adds a new chapter on construction biotechnology, and offers new end-of-chapter exam questions with solutions to aid readers with performing the design calculations needed and to enhance understanding of the material.

    The book covers essential topics that include:

    • Diversity and functions of microorganisms in environmental engineering systems
    • Environmental bioengineering processes
    • Applied microbial genetics and molecular biology
    • Microbiology of water and wastewater treatment
    • Biotreatment of solid waste and soil bioremediation
    • Microbial monitoring of environmental engineering systems
    • Biocorrosion and biodeterioration of materials
    • Biocementation and bioclogging of soil
    • Biopollution of indoor environment
    • Biofouling of facilities, and more

    Environmental Microbiology for Engineers provides a practical understanding of microorganisms in the civil engineering process and their functions in the environmental engineering systems, and is designed for practicing environmental engineers working in the areas of wastewater, solid waste treatment, soil remediation and ground improvement.


        • Provides a new chapter on construction biotechnology
        • Includes extensive coverage of the microbiology of water and wastewater treatment
        • Presents information on the bioremediation and biotransformation of solid waste and soil
        • Examines biodeterioration of materials and biocorrosion of structures
        • Analyzes new biotechnologies applied in construction
        • Contains end-of-chapter design exercises and makes available for the lecturers a separate solutions manual


        "This book covers important topics for civil and environmental engineering processes such as biodeterioration, biocorrosion, bioclogging, biocementation, and microbially based construction materials. The book can help engineers perform the necessary design calculations for microbial engineering activities."
        —Dr. Yung-Tse Hung, Cleveland State University, Ohio, USA

        "The main strength of this book is sound connectivity between the microbiology and the environmental systems. I haven’t seen any book which talks in detail about the application of microbiology into the environmental systems. Especially the topics related to soil and soil treatment."
        —Srinivas Prabakar, The University of Texas at Arlington, USA

        "This text book includes a wide range of interesting topics in the area of environmental microbiology for engineers. …that will be a great help for scientists, students and engineers on the study and application of microorganisms in environmental protections. "
        —Tiehang Wu, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, USA

        "… the most comprehensive microbiology book… covers all the important topics in microbiology and their association in environmental engineering treatment and disposal problems. … microorganisms and microbiological processes are reflected with examples related to many fields of environmental engineering."
        —Mujde Erten-Unal, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA

        "… comprehensive and wide ranging… What I like best is the intuitive format… the author first introduces the subject and then proceeds to discuss cost effectiveness followed by concise and easy to follow applications."
        —Jan DeJarnette, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, USA

        "This is a great introductory text for engineering students concerned with microbiological processes. The book starts with a justification of why microorganisms can revolutionize engineering approaches before providing insight into concrete examples of microbiological engineering…"
        —Robin Gerlach, Montana State University, Missoula, USA

        "… an overall and concise review of the most important and up-to-date topics in environmental microbiology."
        —Woo Hyoung Lee, Ph.D., P.E., University of Central Florida

        "… the author has really achieved something extraordinary here, I wouldn’t be able to find this much depth of content in all the fields that the book has covered in several texts. …This book is a treasure and a must for any engineering student to fully understand microbial life and its applications to the environment."
        —Rehana Rostron, The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

        "I really love the [breadth] of the topics covered in this book. … it [extends] to other disciplines of engineering, which adds [breadth] to the topic of engineering microbiology… And they can help attract students outside the area of environmental engineering."
        —Wen Zhang, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, USA

    • Contents

      Self-Organized Systems
      Life as Self-Organized Growth of Biomass
      Organisms and Microorganisms
      Size of Microorganisms
      Environmental Microbiology
      Why Are Microbes Used in Environmental Engineering?
      Organisms of Importance in Environmental Microbiology
      Subviral Particles
      Importance of Viruses in Environmental and Civil Engineering
      Bacteria and Archaea
      Importance of Prokaryotes in Environmental and Civil Engineering
      Importance of Fungi in Environmental and Civil Engineering
      Importance of Algae in Environmental Engineering
      Importance of Protozoa for Environmental Engineering
      Chapter 1 Quiz

      Static Biochemistry
      Static and Dynamic Biochemistry
      Chemical Features of Life
      Balance of Elements
      Covalent Bonds
      Organic Compounds and Functional Groups
      Polarity of Chemical Bonds
      pH of Solutions
      Intermolecular Forces
      Hydrophobic Substances and Hydrophobic Forces
      Biological Monomers and Polymers
      Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides
      Lipids and Membranes
      Lipid Membranes
      Membrane Melting and Freezing
      Amino Acids and Proteins
      Structure of a Protein Molecule
      Globular and Fibrous Proteins
      Denaturation of Proteins
      Cyclic Nucleotides
      DNA Structure
      DNA Melting
      DNA as a Carrier of Genetic Information
      DNA Sequences and Sequencing
      Genetic Code
      rRNA and Translation
      16S rRNA
      Functions of rRNA in the Ribosome
      Summary of the Functions of Monomers and Polymers in a Cell
      Chapter 2 Quiz

      Dynamic Biochemistry
      Levels of Metabolism
      Biochemical Reactions
      Major Features of Enzymes
      Mechanism of Enzymatic Catalysis
      Specificity of Enzymes
      Inactivation of Enzymes
      Classification of Enzymes
      Environmental Applications of Microbial Enzymes and Coenzymes
      Units of Enzymatic Activity
      Control of Individual Biochemical Reactions
      Effect of Noncompetitive Inhibitors on Enzymatic Activity
      Effect of Competitive Inhibitors on Enzymatic Activity
      Control of a Group of Biochemical Reactions
      Regulation of Enzymatic Activity in the Sequence of Enzymes
      Regulation of Enzyme Synthesis and Degradation
      Metabolic Blocks
      Control of Metabolic Blocks
      Cyclic AMP and GMP as Whole-Cell Regulators of Metabolism
      Temporal Control of Cell Metabolism
      Nitric Oxide as Controller of Metabolism
      Quorum Sensing
      Control of Metabolism in the Biosphere
      Chapter 3 Quiz

      Biooxidation and Bioreduction
      Oxidation Numbers
      Oxidation of Carbon
      Oxidation–Reduction during Fermentation
      Two Sources of Biological Forms of Energy
      Chemotrophic Oxidation–Reduction Reactions
      Chemotrophy: Fermentation
      Chemotrophy: Anaerobic (Anoxic) Respiration
      Chemotrophy: Aerobic Respiration
      Oxygenic and Anoxygenic Phototrophic Oxidation–Reduction Reactions
      Electron-Transfer Chain
      Proton Motive Force
      Oxidative Phosphorylation
      Biological Forms of Energy
      Production of Biological Energy in Photosynthesis
      ATP Yield from Oxidative Phosphorylation
      ATP Production and Yield from Fermentation
      ATP Yield from Lithotrophy
      Long-Term Energy Storage in Cells
      Relation to Oxygen and Generation of Energy
      Chapter 4 Quiz

      Biodegradation and biotransformation
      Biochemical Reactions of Biodegradation
      Aerobic, Anoxic, and Anaerobic Biodegradation
      Biodegraded Substances
      Biodegradation Rates of Natural Substances
      Biodegradation Rates Correlate with Turnover Rates
      Degradation of Storage Polysaccharides
      Biodegradation of Structural Polysaccharides
      Biodegradation of Hemicellulose and Pectin
      Biodegradation of Cellulose
      Biodegradation of Lignin
      White-Rot Fungi
      Biodegradation of Chitin
      Degradation of Proteins
      Degradation of Amino Acids
      Degradation of Nucleic Acids
      Degradation of Lipids
      Biodegradation of Chemicals
      Degradation of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
      Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
      Biodegradation of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene
      Bioremediation of Soil and Water Polluted by BTEX Chemicals
      Degradative Plasmids
      Biodegradation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
      Products of Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
      Nonbiodegradable and Biodegradable Polymers
      Polylactic Acid and Polyhydroxyalkanoates
      Chapter 5 Quiz

      Molecular Biology and Genetics
      Metabolic Blocks of Biosynthesis
      Energy for Biosynthesis
      Balance of Energy
      Excess of Biological Energy
      Number of Enzymes
      Noncoding RNA Genes
      Genomes of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
      The Genome in Comparison with a Book
      Flow of Genetic Information
      Genetics, Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics, and Epigenetics
      Collection of DNA Sequences
      Nucleus and Nucleoid
      DNA Replication
      Speed of DNA Replication
      Genetic Code
      Genome Changes
      Natural Genetic Recombination in Prokaryotes
      Horizontal Gene Transfer
      DNA Reparation and Mutations
      Chemical Mutagens
      Physical Mutagens
      Biological Mutagens
      Genetic Adaptation of Microbial Population to Changed
      Chapter 6 Quiz

      Bioagents of Environmental and Engineering Bioprocesses
      Hierarchy of Life
      Cell Aggregates
      Microbial Communities and Ecosystems
      Shapes of Individual and Connected Prokaryotic Cells
      Prokaryotic Cell Shapes as Evolutionary Adaptation to
      Inner Structure of Prokaryotic Cells
      Intracellular Inclusions in Prokaryotic Cells
      Outer Components of Prokaryotic Cells
      Cytoplasmic Membrane
      Vulnerability of the Cytoplasmic Membrane
      Prokaryotic Cell Walls
      Origin of Gram-Negative Cells
      Origin of Gram-Positive Cells
      Flagella, Fimbriae, and Pili
      Outer Membrane, Lipopolysaccharides, and S-Layer
      Glycocalyx and Capsule
      Anabiotic Prokaryotic Cells
      Structure of Eukaryotic Cells
      Chapter 7 Quiz

      Reproduction, Proliferation, and Growth
      Reproduction of Viruses
      Reproduction of Prokaryotes
      Vegetative Reproduction of Microscopic Eukaryotes
      Asexual and Sexual Reproduction of Microscopic Eukaryotes
      Cell Growth and the Cell Division Cycle
      Coordination of Cell Cycle Events
      Periods of Exotrophy and Endotrophy in the Cell Cycle
      Cell Differentiation
      Growth and Proliferation of Cell Populations
      Generation Time and Number of Generations
      Specific Growth Rate
      Stoichiometry of Microbial Growth
      Cell Age and Cell Trophic State Distributions in Microbial
      Quantification of Microbial Biomass
      Microscopic Enumeration
      Flow Cytometry Enumeration
      Physical Methods of Microbial Biomass Measurement
      Chemical Methods of Microbial Biomass Measurement
      Physiological Methods of Microbial Biomass Measurement
      Biological Methods of Cell Enumeration: Plate Count
      Biological Methods of Cell Enumeration: Most Probable
      Number Count
      Enumeration of Cells and Viral Particles at Low Concentrations
      Molecular-Biological Methods of Microbial Biomass
      Chapter 8 Quiz

      Microbial Ecology
      Levels of Ecosystems
      Ecosystem Boundaries
      Boundaries of Unicellular Organisms
      Boundaries of Multicellular Aggregates
      Boundaries of Microbial Communities in Environmental Engineering Systems
      Diversity of a Microbial Ecosystem
      Quantification of Ecosystem Diversity
      Diversity in an Anaerobic Digester
      Types of Interactions in Microbial Ecosystems
      Population Density Determines Interaction Type
      Interactions of Microorganisms in Cellular Aggregates
      Positive Interactions between Animals and Microorganisms
      Symbiotic Mutualism
      Positive Interactions between Plants and Microorganisms
      Symbiosis of Plants and Microorganisms
      Neutral Competition
      Microbial Parasites of Plants
      Microbial Parasites of Human and Animals
      Effects of Nutrients on Biotic Elements
      Effects of Nutrients on Yield
      Effect of Starvation on Microorganisms
      Effect of Oxygen on Biotic Elements
      Anoxic Microorganisms
      Effect of Temperature on Growth
      Effect of pH on Growth
      Effect of Osmotic Pressure on Growth
      Natural Death of Microorganisms
      Fate of Microorganisms Released into the Environment
      Chapter 9 Quiz

      Classification of Viruses and Microorganisms
      Biological Classification
      Units of Biological Classification
      Names of Species
      Classification of Viruses
      Groups of Viruses
      Importance of Viruses for Environmental Engineering
      Isolation and Collection of Microbial Strains
      Microbial Collections
      Classification of Microorganisms
      Phenotypic Characteristics
      Genotypic Classification
      Phylogenetic Classification
      G+C Content in DNA and Genotypic Classification
      Comparison of the Steps in Phenotypic and Phylogenetic Identification of Strains
      Phylogenetic Groups of Prokaryotes
      Classification of Microscopic Fungi
      Classification of Microscopic Algae
      Classification of Protozoa
      Chapter 10 Quiz

      Physiological Classification of Prokaryotes
      Physiology of Prokaryotes
      Three Types of Chemotrophic Energy Generation
      Three Types of Phototrophic Energy Generation
      Evolution of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Prokaryotes
      Contradictions between rRNA-Based Phylogenetic
      Classification and Physiological Classification of Prokaryotes
      Absence of Predictive Power in rRNA-Based Phylogenetic Classification
      Parallelism in Evolution of Genes
      Periodic Table of Prokaryotes
      Origin of Prokaryotes in Aquatic, Terrestrial, and Extreme Environments
      Phototrophic Prokaryotes in the Periodic Table
      Reasons for Evolutionary Parallelism in the Periods of the Periodic Table of Prokaryotes
      Geological Synchronization of the Periods in the Periodic Table of Prokaryotes
      Practical Importance of the Periodic Table of Prokaryotes
      Chapter 11 Quiz

      Groups of Anaerobic Prokaryotes
      The 24 Major Physiological Groups of Prokaryotes
      Gram-Negative (Aquatic) Chemotrophic Fermenting Bacteria
      Gram-Positive (Terrestrial) Chemotrophic Fermenting Bacteria
      Chemotrophic Fermenting Archaea
      Gram-Negative (Aquatic) Phototrophic Bacteria That Use
      Products of Fermentation as Electron Donors
      Gram-Positive (Terrestrial) Phototrophic Bacteria That Use
      Products of Fermentation as Electron Donors
      Phototrophic Archaea That Use Products of Fermentation as Electron Donors
      Chapter 12 Quiz

      Groups of Anoxic Prokaryotes
      Gram-Negative (Aquatic), Chemotrophic, Anoxic Bacteria
      Dissimilatory Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria
      Iron-Reducing Bacteria
      Denitrifying Bacteria
      Gram-Positive (Terrestrial), Chemotrophic, Anoxic Bacteria
      Chemotrophic, Anoxic Archaea (Methanogens)
      Gram-Negative (Aquatic), Phototrophic, Anoxic Bacteria
      Gram-Positive (Terrestrial), Phototrophic, Anoxic Bacteria
      Phototrophic Archaea That Use Products of Anoxic Respiration as Electron Donors
      Chapter 13 Quiz

      Groups of Microaerophilic and Facultative Aerobic/Anaerobic
      Evolutionary Adaptations of Facultative Aerobic/Anaerobic and
      Microaerophilic Prokaryotes
      Gram-Negative (Aquatic), Chemotrophic, Facultative Aerobic/
      Anaerobic Bacteria
      Gram-Negative (Aquatic), Chemotrophic, Microaerophilic Bacteria
      Gram-Positive (Terrestrial), Chemotrophic, Facultative Aerobic/
      Anaerobic and Microaerophilic Bacteria
      Chemotrophic, Facultative Aerobic/Anaerobic and
      Microaerophilic Archaea
      Gram-Negative (Aquatic), Phototrophic, Facultative Aerobic/
      Anaerobic and Microaerophilic Bacteria
      Gram-Positive (Terrestrial), Phototrophic, Facultative Aerobic/
      Anaerobic and Microaerophilic Bacteria
      Phototrophic, Facultative Aerobic/Anaerobic and
      Microaerophilic Archaea
      Chapter 14 Quiz

      Groups of Aerobic Prokaryotes
      Functions of Aerobic Prokaryotes
      Pseudomonads and Their Relatives
      Slime-Producing Bacteria
      Phosphate-Accumulating Bacteria
      Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria
      Bacterial Parasites of Bacteria
      Gram-Negative, Chemotrophic, Aerobic Pathogens
      Ammonium-Oxidizing Chemolithotrophs (Nitrifying Bacteria)
      Sulfur-Oxidizing, Chemolithotrophic Bacteria
      Iron- and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria
      Gram-Positive (Terrestrial), Chemotrophic, Aerobic Bacteria
      Chemotrophic, Aerobic Archaea
      Gram-Negative (Aquatic), Phototrophic, Aerobic Bacteria
      Gram-Positive (Terrestrial), Phototrophic, Aerobic Bacteria
      Phototrophic, Aerobic Archaea
      Chapter 15 Quiz

      Public Health and Water Disinfection
      Saprophytic, Pathogenic, and Opportunistic Microbes
      Parasites of Humans and Animals
      Stages of Infectious Disease
      Transmission of Infection
      Patterns and Extent of Infectious Disease
      Cooperation between Epidemiologists and Civil Engineers
      Infections via Vectors
      Factors of Microbial Pathogenicity
      The Problem of Opportunistic Bacteria in Environmental Biotechnology
      Waterborne Pathogens
      Detection of Waterborne Pathogenic Viruses
      Waterborne Pathogenic Bacteria
      Fate of Pathogens Released into the Environment
      Waterborne Pathogenic Protozoa
      Indicator Microorganisms
      Coliforms as Indicators of Fecal Pollution
      Other Indicators of Fecal Pollution
      Bacteriological Quality of Water
      Protozoan and Viral Pathogens
      Detection of Pathogens in the Environment
      Removal and Killing of Pathogens
      Control of Microbial Death in Water
      Thermal Treatment of Water
      Pasteurization and Sterilization
      Sterilization by Electromagnetic Radiation
      Sterilization by Filtration
      Disinfectants and Antiseptics
      Resistance of Different Microbial Groups to Disinfection
      Comparison of Chemical Disinfectants
      UV Disinfection of Water
      Chemical Interference with Disinfection of Water
      Physical Interference with Disinfection of Water
      Chapter 16 Quiz

      Biotechnological Processes
      Environmental Biotechnology
      Comparison of Biotechnological Treatment with Other Methods
      Applicability of Environmental Biotechnology
      Combination of Biotechnology with Other Methods
      Bioprocesses Used in Environmental Biotechnology
      Stages of Biotechnological Processes
      Upstream Processes in Environmental Biotechnology
      Pretreatment in Biotechnology
      Medium Preparation
      Medium Components
      Preparation of Equipment
      Preparation of Inoculum
      Core Process in Environmental Biotechnology
      Semi-Closed and Open Systems of Cultivation
      Batch Culture
      Continuous Cultivation
      Plug-Flow Systems
      Suspended Biomass Bioreactors
      Continuous Systems with Internal Recycling or Retention of Biomass
      Microbiological Methods Used in Environmental Engineering
      Isolation of Pure Cultures
      Selection of Microorganisms
      Theoretical Selection
      Selection of an Enrichment Culture
      Selective Pressure
      Autoselection Mechanisms
      Instability of Autoselected Features
      Selection of an Ecosystem
      Construction of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms
      Steps for Artificial Recombination of DNA
      Application of Genetic Engineering in Environmental Engineering
      Physical Boundary of an Artificial Ecosystem
      Chemical Boundary of an Artificial Ecosystem
      Macro- and Microenvironments
      Effect of Nutrients on Growth Rate
      Downstream Processes
      Microbial Aggregates
      Structure of Microbial Aggregates
      Sedimentation of Cellular Aggregates
      Selection of Microbial Aggregates by Settling Time
      Chapter 17 Quiz

      Aquatic Systems and Water Biotreatment
      Microorganisms of the Hydrosphere, Lithosphere, and Atmosphere
      Functions of Microorganisms in the Hydrosphere
      The Biogeochemical Carbon Cycle
      The Biogeochemical Nitrogen Cycle
      The Biogeochemical Phosphorus Cycle
      The Biogeochemical Sulfur Cycle
      The Biogeochemical Iron Cycle
      Stratification in Aquatic Ecosystems
      Sources of Water Pollution
      Eutrophication of Water in Reservoirs
      Signs of Eutrophication
      Treatment of Storm Water in Artificial (Constructed) Wetlands
      Stages of Treatment of Raw Drinking Water
      Pollutants of Water That Can Be Removed by Biotreatment
      Biological Instability of Water
      Chemical Removal of Sources of Biological Instability
      Biological Removal of Sources of Biological Instability
      Disadvantages of Bioremoval of Sources of Biological Instability
      BOM in Water
      Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biological Oxygen Demand, and Total Organic Carbon
      Measurement of BOM
      Bioremoval of Sources of Biological Instability
      Fixed-Bed Biofilters
      Fluidized-Bed Biofilm Reactors
      Biofiltration of Water through Soil
      Organic Micropollutants of Water
      Bioremoval of Endocrine Disruptors from Water
      Bioremoval of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives from Water
      Bioremoval of Halogenated Compounds from Water
      Sucralose in Water
      Taste and Odor Compounds of Microbial Origin
      Arsenic in Water
      Nitrate and Nitrite in Water
      Heterotrophic Denitrification of Drinking Water
      Autotrophic Denitrification
      Conditions for Denitrification
      Bioreduction of Perchlorate in Drinking Water
      Iron and Manganese in Water
      Chapter 18 Quiz

      Anaerobic and Anoxic Treatment of Wastewater
      Oxygen and Energy Generation
      Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Matter
      Microbiology of Anaerobic Digestion of Biopolymers
      Biogas Collection and Use
      Optimal Conditions for Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Waste
      Interaction between Methanogenesis and Sulfate Reduction
      Comparison of Anaerobic and Aerobic Digestion of Organic Waste
      Bioreactors Used in Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment
      Stirred Tank Reactors for Anaerobic Digestion of Organics
      UASB Reactors
      Septic Tanks
      Anaerobic Processes in Landfills
      Anaerobic Degradation of Xenobiotics by Fermenting Bacteria
      Anoxic Bioprocesses
      Nitrate Reduction in Water and Wastewater Treatment
      Nitrate Reduction in Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery
      Nitrate Reduction in Soil Bioremediation
      Nitrate Reduction in Geotechnical Improvement of Soil
      Iron Reduction in Water, Wastewater, and Groundwater Treatment
      Sulfate Reduction in Water and Wastewater Treatment
      Dehalogenating Bacteria
      Combined Anaerobic/Aerobic Biotreatment of Wastes
      Biotechnological Treatment of Heavy Metal-Containing Waste and Radionuclide-Containing Waste
      Chapter 19 Quiz

      Aerobic Treatment of Wastewater
      Domestic Wastewater
      Industrial Wastewater
      Objectives of Aerobic Wastewater Biotreatment
      Aerobic Treatment of Wastewater
      Conventional Biotreatment in Aerobic Tanks
      Organic Load of Aerobic Treatment
      Activated Sludge Settleability
      Activated Sludge Recycling
      Microorganisms of Activated Sludge
      Flocs of Activated Sludge
      Filamentous Bacteria in Activated Sludge Flocs
      Control of Filamentous Bulking of Activated Sludge
      Suspended Microbial Aggregates (Granules) Used in Aerobic Treatment of Wastewater
      Removal of Nutrients from Wastewater
      Aerobic Reactors
      Aerobic Treatment of Wastewater with Low Concentrations of Hazardous Substances
      Aerobic Digestion of Activated Sludge
      Combinations of Aerobic Treatment of Wastewater with Other Treatments
      Application of Microaerophilic Microorganisms in
      Biotechnological Treatments
      Aerobic Biofilm Reactors
      Development of Biofilm in Aerobic Biofilm Reactors
      Chapter 20 Quiz

      Value-Added By-Products of Environmental Engineering
      Organic Wastes as Raw Material for Biotechnological Transformation
      Biotechnological Products from Organic Wastes
      Production of Enzymes from Wastes
      Production of Organic Acids
      Production of Flavors
      Production of Polysaccharides
      Edible Mushroom Production
      Production of Biodegradable Plastics
      Production of Animal Feed
      Use of Organic Waste for Production of Fungi for Soil Bioremediation
      Solid-State Fermentation of Agricultural and
      Food-Processing Wastes
      Production of Fuel Ethanol
      Production of Hydrogen, Methane, and Biodiesel
      Production of Organic Fertilizer
      Biorecovery of Metals from Mining and Industrial Wastes
      Recovery of Phosphate and Ammonia
      Chapter 21 Quiz

      Biotreatment of Industrial Hazardous Wastes
      Electron Donors and Acceptors in Biotreatments
      Energetic Efficiency of Biooxidation–Bioreduction
      Aerobic Treatment of Xenobiotics
      Secondary Hazardous Waste
      Treatment of Wastewater with Low Concentrations of Hazardous Substances
      Biodegradation Using Co-oxidation/Cometabolism
      Combination of Aerobic Treatment with Other Treatments
      Biotreatment of Hazardous Waste by Anaerobic Fermenting Bacteria
      Landfilling of Hazardous Solid Waste
      Combined Anaerobic/Aerobic Biotreatment of Hazardous Industrial Waste
      Optimization of Hazardous Waste Biodegradation
      Optimal Temperatures for Biodegradation of Hazardous Waste
      Optimal pH for Biodegradation of Hazardous Waste
      Enhancement of Biodegradation by Nutrients
      Enhancement of Biodegradation by Growth Factors
      Increase of Bioavailability of Contaminants
      Enhancement of Biodegradation by Enzymes
      Enhancement of Biodegradation by Aeration and Oxygen Supply
      Enhancement of Biodegradation by Oxygen Radicals
      Enhancement of Biodegradation by Electron Acceptors Other Than Oxygen
      Bioenhancement of the Treatment of Hazardous Waste
      Application of Acclimated Microorganisms
      Selection and Use of Pure Cultures
      Construction of Microbial Communities
      Construction of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms
      Environmental Engineering Applications of Recombinant Strains of Microorganisms
      Application of Microbial Aggregates and Immobilized Microorganisms
      Chemical Gradients in Microbial Aggregates
      Chapter 22 Quiz

      Solid Wastes and Soil Biotreatment
      Solid Wastes
      Treatment of Solid Wastes
      Biological Reactions of Decay in Landfills
      Sewage Sludge Processing
      Microbiology of Composting
      Bulking Agents
      Types of Composting Systems
      Optimal Parameters for Composting
      Composting a Mixture of Wastes
      Scale of Composting
      Public Health Aspects of Composting
      Odor Control in Composting
      Composting of Hazardous Organic Wastes
      Organic Matter in Soil
      Microbial Activity and Soil
      Soil and the Biodegradation of Xenobiotics
      Toxic Pollutants of Soil
      Sources of Soil Pollution
      Leakage from Underground Storage Tank Facilities
      Landfill Leachate
      Soil and Groundwater Bioremediation
      Landfarming, Land Treatment, and Plant Bioremediation
      Onsite and In Situ Soil and Groundwater Bioremediation
      Excavation and Composting of Contaminated Soil
      Slurry-Phase Bioremediation in Bioreactors
      Gas Cleaning
      Pretreatment of Contaminated Soil
      Steps in Microbial Culture Development for Slurry-Phase Bioremediation
      Advantages of Soil Bioremediation
      Disadvantages of Soil Bioremediation
      Bioremediation and Biodecontamination of Construction Sites through Biocementation
      Artificial Protective Geochemical Barrier
      Chapter 23 Quiz

      Construction Biotechnology
      Bioagents Used in Construction Biotechnology
      Construction Biotechnology Methods
      Microbial Biogeotechnics
      Reasons for Microbial Applications in Geotechnical Engineering
      Major Applications of Microorganisms for Ground Improvement
      Chemical Grouting
      Microbial Processes for Bioclogging with Organic Material
      Microbial Processes for Bioclogging with Inorganic Material
      Clogging with Microbial Polysaccharides
      Bacteria That Produce Clogging Polysaccharides
      Clogging with Microbially Induced Precipitates
      Microbial Processes of Bioclogging and Biocementation with Inorganic Compounds
      Microbially Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation
      Geotechnical Applications of Biocementation
      Problems of Microbial Cementation and Clogging
      Physiological Grouping of Chemotrophic Prokaryotes
      Screening of Microorganisms for Bioclogging and Biocementation
      Application of Anaerobic Fermenting Bacteria in Biogeotechnics
      Application of Anoxic Bacteria in Biogeotechnics
      Application of Facultative Anaerobic Bacteria in Biogeotechnics
      Application of Microaerophilic Bacteria in Biogeotechnics
      Application of Aerobic Bacteria in Biogeotechnics
      General Considerations on Bacterial Applicability in Geotechnics
      Biosafety in Biogeotechnics
      Soil Biotreatment Procedures
      Biocement and Biogrout Production Biotechnologies
      Inoculum for Biotreatment of Soil
      Use of Indigenous Microorganisms in Soil for Biocementation
      Medium for Microbial Cultivation
      Soil Biotreatment
      Microbial Admixtures
      Construction Bioplastics
      Chapter 24 Quiz

      Microbiology of Air and Air Treatment
      Sources of Bioaerosols
      Viral Aerosols
      Bacterial Aerosols
      Fungal Aerosols
      Pollen Grain Aerosols
      Concentration of Aerosols
      Bioaerosol Sampling
      Bioaerosols and Indoor Air Quality
      Fate of Bioaerosols in the Environment
      Bioaerosols from Wastewater Treatment, Spray Irrigation, and Biotechnological Plants
      Odors Generated by Wastewater Treatment Plants
      Treatment of Odorous and Exhaust Gases
      Aerobic Biotechnological Treatment of Hazardous Waste Gas
      Biotreatment of Toxic Gas
      Chapter 25 Quiz

      Biodeterioration, Biocorrosion, and Biofouling
      Microbial Biodeterioration
      Deterioration of Cultural Heritage
      Microbially Influenced Corrosion
      Microbial Formation of Acids
      Biofouling of Membranes
      Membrane Treatments of Water and Wastewater
      Mechanisms of Membrane Fouling
      Types of Foulants
      Fouling Control
      Chapter 26 Quiz

      Outline and Summary of the Course "Environmental Microbiology for Engineers"

      Course Outline
      Summary of the Course "Environmental Microbiology for Engineers"
      Static Biochemistry
      Dynamic Biochemistry
      Biooxidation and Bioreduction
      Molecular Biology and Genetics
      Bioagents of Environmental and Engineering Bioprocesses
      Reproduction, Proliferation, and Growth
      Microbial Ecology
      Classifications of Viruses, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
      Physiological Classification of Prokaryotes
      Groups of Prokaryotes
      Public Health and Water Disinfection
      Biotechnological Processes
      Aquatic Ecosystems and Water Treatment
      Anaerobic and Anoxic Wastewater Treatment
      Aerobic Wastewater Treatment
      Value-Added By-Products of Environmental Engineering
      Solid Waste Biotreatment
      Soil Bioremediation
      Construction Biotechnology
      Microbiology of Air and Air Treatment
      Biodeterioration, Biocorrosion, and Biofouling

      Tutorial 1: Microorganisms: Cell Size and Shape
      Tutorial 2: Cell Chemistry and Structure
      Tutorial 3: Metabolism and Biodegradation
      Tutorial 4: Growth and Ecology
      Tutorial 5: Anaerobic Processes
      Tutorial 6: Aerobic Processes
      Tutorial 7: Solid Waste Biotreatment
      Tutorial 8: Construction Biotechnology

      Exam Question Bank