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Viral Encephalitis in Humans

Publication Date:
July 08, 2003
Content Details:
290 pages

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  • About the Book

    Book Summary

    Designed to assist clinicians in the diagnosis and therapy of patients with suspected viral encephalitis. • Presents information according to the clinical and epidemiological information available at the time of presentation of the patients rather than according to principles of viral taxonomy. • Emphasizes neuropathological descriptions and pathogenesis concepts, reflecting the authors’ belief that an understanding of pathogenesis facilitates the diagnostic process and is central to therapeutic intervention. • Covers the full range of human encephalitis/encephalopathy, including HIV/AIDS, prion diseases, and smallpox.

    This title is published by the American Society for Microbiology Press and distributed by Taylor and Francis in rest of world territories.

  • Contents

    Table of Contents Preface Acknowledgements Section I. Introduction 1. Pathological Features of Encephalitis in Humans Sources of Information on the Pathology of Encephalitis Naked-Eye Examination of the Brain and Routine Light Microscopy Immunocytochemistry, PCR, and In Situ Hybridization Electron Microscopy Pathological Features Common to Most Forms of Viral Encephalitis Pathological Features Restricted to Certain Forms of Encephalitis Mode of Entry of Viruses into the Nervous System Selective Vulnerability of Cells of the Central Nervous System Tempo of the Disease Process Role of the Immune Response Complications and Sequelae The Need for Autopsies 2. Diagnostic Evaluation Differentiation of Encephalitis from Other Conditions Types of Encephalitis: Key Initial Questions Clinical Classification of Encephalitis Diagnostic Evaluation of Encephalitis Diagnostic Virology and Serology Encephalitis of Undetermined Etiology 3. Management Decisions in Acute Encephalitis Common Management Issues Antiviral and Immunomodulating Therapies Therapy by Type of Encephalitis Clinical Evaluation for Acute Management Acute Management Decisions Reduction of Raised Intracranial Pressure Control of Seizures Management in the Recovery Period Appendix: Encephalitis Treatment Checklist Arranged by Clinical Classification Section II. Acute Sporadic Encephalitis 4. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Introduction and Classification HSV Historical Considerations Pathology of HSE Pathology of Atypical HSV-1 Encephalitis and HSV-2 Encephalitis and Myelitis Pathogenesis of HSE Clinical Evaluation of HSE Therapy, Course, and Outcomes Recurrent Encephalitis Neonatal Nerpes Simplex Infection 5. Systemic Viral Diseases and Encephalitis Exanthematous Diseases Mumps Epstein-Barr Virus--Infectious Mononucleosis--Glandular Fever Adenovirus Gastroenteritis-Rotaviruses Hepatitis Viruses 6. Encephalitis Viruses Transmitted from Animals Sporadic Arbovirus Infections Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Rabies Herpes B Virus of Monkey--Herpesvirus simiae--Cercopithecine Herpesvirus Section III. Acute Parainfectious Immune-Mediated Encephalomyelitis 7. Pathology of Allergic Forms of Encephalomyelitis Pathology of Human Perivenous Encephalitis Pathology of Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis Acute Parainfectious Encephalopathy Pathogenesis of Allergic Encephalitis 8. Clinical Syndromes Including Smallpox and Measles ADEM Acute Cerebellar Ataxia and Related Syndromes Brain Stem ADEM, Including Bickenstaff's Brain Stem Encephalitis Miller Fisher Syndrome Acute Transverse Myelitis Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalopathy (Hurst) Acute Encephalopathy, Including Reye's Syndrome Postviral Stroke Smallpox and Its Vaccination Measles 9. Varicella-Zoster Virus: the Paradox of Immune Mediation and Immunocompromise Chicken Pox Zoster Section IV. Acute Epidemic Encephalitis 10. Influenza Virus, Enteroviruses, and Other Epidemic Viruses Human-to-Human Transmission Animal-to-Human Transmission: Nipah Virus Unknown Means of Transmission 11. The Arboviruses Pathology Pathogenesis Diagnosis and Management Mosquito-Borne Encephalitides Tick-Borne Encephalitides Section V. Subacute and Chronic Encephalitis and Prion Diseases 12. HIV/AIDS The Pathogenesis and Pathology of AIDS Systemic Pathology of AIDS Neuropathology of HIV Infection Pre-AIDS Neuropathology in Untreated Individuals: Lymphocytic Meningitis AIDS Neuropathology Neuronal Pathology and Its Pathogenesis Vascular Pathology AIDS-Associated Myelopathy and HIV Myelitis Influence of Antiretroviral Treatment on the Neuropathology of AIDS Clinical Features of Early HIV Disease in the CNS Antiretroviral Therapy Clinical Features of AIDS in the CNS Pediatric AIDS 13. Encephalitis in Immunocompromised Patients PML CMV Encephalitis and Radiculomyelitis Enteroviral CNS Infections in Primary Hypogammaglobulinemia or Agammaglobulinemia IME Encephalitis Associated with Organ Transplantation and Bone Marrow Allografting 14. Encephalitis in Immunocompetent Patients SSPE PRP HAM/TSP Rasmussen's Encephalitis Vilyuisk Encephalitis--Bokhoror Borna Disease 15. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Other Prion Disorders Pathology Pathogenesis of CJD Diagnosis and Management Infection Control Index