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Food Microbiology

An Introduction

Edition:
4th
Author(s):
Thomas Montville, Karl Matthews, Kalmia Kniel
ISBN:
9781555819385
Format:
Hardback
Publication Date:
April 12, 2017
Content Details:
550 pages
Language:
English

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  • About the Book

    Book Summary

    Food Microbiology clarifies complex topics in the field of food microbiology and encourages students to venture beyond memorization and think critically to gain a broader conceptual understanding of food microbiology and acquire the understanding and skills necessary to ensure the safety of tomorrow's food supply.

    Authoratative coverage presented in a format designed to facilitate teaching and learning.

    Features

      Textbook that clarifies complex food microbiology topics and encourages students to venture beyond memorization and think critically to gain a broader conceptual understanding of food microbiology and acquire the understanding and skills necessary to ensure food supply safety. Presents learning goals to focus students on the core principles of food microbiology.

  • Contents

    Preface

    About the Authors

    SECTION I Basics of Food Microbiology

    1 The Trajectory of Food Microbiology
    Introduction
    Who's on First?
    Food Microbiology, Past and Present
    To the Future and Beyond
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    2 Microbial Growth, Survival, and Death in Foods
    Introduction
    Food Ecosystems, Homeostasis, and Hurdle Technology
    Foods as Ecosystems
    Classical Microbiology and Its Limitations
    Limitations of Detection and Enumeration Methods
    Plate Counts
    Selective, or Differential, Media
    Most-Probable-Number Methods
    Enrichment Techniques
    Physiological States of Bacteria
    Introduction
    Injury
    Viable but Nonculturable
    Quorum Sensing and Signal Transduction
    Biofilms
    Factors That Influence Microbial Growth
    Intrinsic Factors
    Extrinsic Factors
    Homeostasis and Hurdle Technology
    Growth Kinetics
    Microbial Physiology and Metabolism
    Carbon Flow and Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
    The TCA Cycle Links Glycolysis to Aerobic Respiration
    Conclusion
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    3 Spores and Their Significance
    Introduction
    Spores in the Food Industry
    Low-Acid Canned Foods
    Bacteriology of Sporeformers of Public Health Significance
    Heat Resistance of C. botulinum Spores
    Spoilage of Acid and Low-Acid Canned and Vacuum-Packaged Foods by Sporeformers
    Spore Biology
    Structure
    Macromolecules
    Small Molecules
    Dormancy
    Resistance
    Freezing and Desiccation Resistance
    Pressure Resistance
    gamma-Radiation Resistance
    UV Radiation Resistance
    Chemical Resistance
    Heat Resistance
    The Cycle of Sporulation and Germination
    Sporulation
    Activation
    Germination
    Outgrowth
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    4 Detection and Enumeration of Microbes in Food
    Introduction
    Sample Collection and Processing
    Analysis
    Metabolism-Based Methods
    Surface Testing
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    5 Rapid and Automated Microbial Methods
    Introduction
    Sample Processing
    Requirements and Validation of Rapid Methods
    Rapid Methods Based on Traditional Methods
    Immunologically Based Methods
    Molecular Methods
    A Potpourri of Rapid Methods
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    6 Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria
    Introduction
    The Purpose of Microbiological Criteria
    The Need To Establish Microbiological Criteria
    Definitions
    Who Establishes Microbiological Criteria?
    Sampling Plans
    Types of Sampling Plans
    Establishing Limits
    Indicators of Microbiological Quality
    Indicator Microorganisms
    Metabolic Products
    Indicators of Foodborne Pathogens and Toxins
    Indicator Organisms
    Fecal Coliforms and E. coli
    Metabolic Products
    Application and Specific Proposals for Microbiological Criteria for Food and Food Ingredients
    Current Status
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought
    SECTION II Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria

    7 Regulatory Issues
    Introduction
    U.S. Agencies Involved in Food Regulation
    The USDA
    The FDA
    The CDC
    Surveillance
    When an Outbreak Occurs
    Agroterrorism
    What's Next?
    Global Perspective
    “It Takes a Village” and Maybe More
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    8 Bacillus cereus
    Outbreak
    Introduction
    Characteristics of the Organism
    Environmental Sources
    Foodborne Outbreaks
    Characteristics of Disease
    Dose
    Virulence Factors and Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
    The Emetic Toxin
    Enterotoxins
    B. cereus as a Medical Pathogen
    The Spore
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    9 Campylobacter Species
    Outbreak
    Introduction
    Characteristics of the Organism
    Environmental Susceptibility
    Reservoirs and Foodborne Outbreaks
    Characteristics of Disease
    C. jejuni and C. coli
    Other Campylobacter Species
    Epidemiological Subtyping Systems Useful for Investigating Foodborne Illnesses
    Infective Dose and Susceptible Populations
    Virulence Factors and Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
    Cell Association and Invasion
    Flagella and Motility
    Toxins
    Other Factors
    Autoimmune Diseases
    Immunity
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    10 Clostridium botulinum
    Introduction
    Four Faces of Botulism
    Characteristics of the Disease
    Toxic Doses
    Characteristics of C. botulinum
    Classification
    Tolerance to Preservation Methods
    Sources of C. botulinum
    Occurrence of C. botulinum in the Environment
    Occurrence of C. botulinum in Foods
    Virulence Factors and Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
    Structure of the Neurotoxins
    Genetic Regulation of the Neurotoxins
    Mode of Action of the Neurotoxins
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    11 Clostridium perfringens
    The Foodborne Illness
    A Spore's-Eye View of Clostridium perfringens Toxicoinfections
    Cruel and Unusual Punishment
    Incidence
    Vehicles for C. perfringens Foodborne Illness
    Factors Contributing to C. perfringens Type A Foodborne Illness
    Preventing C. perfringens Type A Foodborne Illness
    Identification of C. perfringens Type A Foodborne Illness Outbreaks
    Characteristics of C. perfringens Type A Foodborne Illness
    Infectious Dose for C. perfringens Type A Foodborne Illness
    The Organism
    Overview
    Classification: Toxin Typing of C. perfringens
    Control of C. perfringens
    Reservoirs for C. perfringens Type A
    Virulence Factors Contributing to C. perfringens Type A Foodborne Illness
    Heat Resistance
    C. perfringens Enterotoxin
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    12 Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
    Outbreak
    Introduction
    Categories of E. coli
    Characteristics of E. coli O157:H7 and Non-O157 EHEC
    Acid Tolerance
    Antibiotic Resistance
    Inactivation by Heat and Irradiation
    Reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7
    Detection of E. coli O157:H7 and Other EHEC Strains on Farms
    Factors Associated with Bovine Carriage of E. coli O157:H7
    Cattle Model for Infection by E. coli O157:H7
    Domestic Animals and Wildlife
    Humans
    Disease Outbreaks
    Geographic Distribution
    Seasonality of E. coli O157:H7 Infection
    Age of Patients
    Transmission of E. coli O157:H7
    Examples of Foodborne and Waterborne Outbreaks
    Characteristics of Disease
    Infectious Dose
    Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
    Attaching and Effacing
    The Locus of Enterocyte Effacement
    The 60-MDa Plasmid (pO157)
    Stxs
    Conclusion
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    13 Listeria monocytogenes
    Outbreak
    Introduction
    Characteristics of the Organism
    Classification
    Susceptibility to Physical and Chemical Agents
    Listeriosis and Specific Foods
    Ready-to-Eat Foods
    Milk Products
    Cheeses
    Meat and Poultry Products
    Seafoods
    Other Foods
    Environmental Sources of L. monocytogenes
    Food-Processing Plants
    Prevalence and the Regulatory Status of L. monocytogenes
    Human Carriers
    Foodborne Outbreaks
    Characteristics of Disease
    Infectious Dose
    Virulence Factors and Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
    Pathogenicity of L. monocytogenes
    Specific Genes Mediate Pathogenicity
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought
    More questions than answers

    14 Salmonella Species
    Outbreak
    Introduction
    Characteristics of the Organism
    Biochemical Identification
    Taxonomy and Nomenclature
    Serological Identification
    Physiology
    Reservoirs
    Characteristics of Disease
    Symptoms and Treatment
    Preventative Measures
    Antibiotic Resistance
    Infectious Dose
    Pathogenicity and Virulence Factors
    Specific and Nonspecific Human Responses
    Attachment and Invasion
    Growth and Survival within Host Cells
    Virulence Plasmids
    Other Virulence Factors
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    15 Shigella Species
    Outbreak
    Introduction
    Classification and Biochemical Characteristics
    Shigella in Foods
    Survival and Growth in Foods
    Characteristics of Disease
    Foodborne Outbreaks
    Virulence Factors
    Genetic Regulation
    Conclusions
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    16 Staphylococcus aureus
    Outbreak
    Characteristics of the Organism
    Historical Aspects and General Considerations
    Sources of Staphylococcal Food Contamination
    Resistance to Adverse Environmental Conditions
    Foodborne Outbreaks
    Incidence of Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
    A Typical Large Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Outbreak
    Characteristics of Disease
    Toxic Dose
    Toxin Dose Required
    Microbiology, Toxins, and Pathogenicity
    Nomenclature, Characteristics, and Distribution of Enterotoxin-Producing Staphylococci
    Introduction to and Nomenclature of the Staphylococcal Enterotoxins
    Staphylococcal Regulation of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Expression
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    17 Vibrio Species
    Outbreak
    Introduction
    Characteristics of the Organism
    Epidemiology
    Characteristics of Disease
    Susceptibility to Physical and Chemical Treatments
    V. cholerae
    V. mimicus
    V. parahaemolyticus
    V. vulnificus
    V. fluvialis, V. furnissii, V. hollisae, and V. alginolyticus
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    18 Yersinia enterocolitica
    Outbreak
    Introduction
    Characteristics of the Organism
    Classification
    Susceptibility and Tolerance
    Characteristics of Infection
    Reservoirs
    Foodborne Outbreaks
    Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
    Pathological Changes
    Virulence Determinants
    Chromosomal Determinants of Virulence
    Other Virulence Determinants
    Pathogenesis of Yersinia-Induced Autoimmunity
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought
    SECTION III Other Microbes Important in Food

    19 Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Fermentation Products
    Introduction
    The Biochemical Foundation of Food Fermentation
    Catabolic Pathways
    Genetics of Lactic Acid Bacteria
    Dairy Fermentations
    Starter Cultures
    Production of Aroma Compounds
    Vegetable Fermentations
    Ingredients and Additives Used during Fermentations
    Sauerkraut Fermentation
    Pickle Fermentation
    Meat Fermentations
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    20 Yeast-Based and Other Fermentations
    Introduction
    Fermentations That Use Yeast
    Bread
    Beer
    Wine
    Vinegar Fermentation
    Cocoa and Coffee Fermentations
    Cocoa
    Coffee
    Fermented Foods of Non-Western Societies
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    21 Spoilage Organisms
    Introduction
    Meat, Poultry, and Seafood Products
    Origin of the Microflora in Meat
    Origin of the Microflora in Poultry
    Origins of Microfloras in Finfish
    Origins of Microfloras in Shellfish
    Bacterial Attachment to Food Surfaces
    Microbial Progression during Storage
    Muscle Tissue as a Growth Medium
    Factors Influencing Spoilage
    Control of Spoilage of Muscle Foods
    Milk and Dairy Products
    Milk and Dairy Products as Growth Media
    Psychrotrophic Spoilage
    Spoilage by Fermentative Nonsporeformers
    Spore-Forming Bacteria
    Yeasts and Molds
    Spoilage of Produce and Grains
    Types of Spoilage
    Mechanisms of Spoilage
    Influence of Physiological State
    Microbiological Spoilage of Vegetables
    Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits
    Microbiological Spoilage of Grains and Grain Products
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    22 Molds
    Introduction
    Isolation, Enumeration, and Identification
    Aspergillus Species
    A. flavus and A. parasiticus
    Other Toxigenic Aspergilli
    Penicillium Species
    Significant Penicillium Mycotoxins
    Fusaria and Toxigenic Molds Other than Aspergilli and Penicillia
    Toxigenic Fusarium Species
    Other Toxic Molds
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    23 Parasites
    Outbreak
    Introduction
    Protozoa
    Cryptosporidium spp.
    Cyclospora cayetanensis
    Toxoplasma gondii
    Giardia intestinalis
    Other Protozoa of Interest
    Helminths
    Roundworms (Nematodes)
    Tapeworms (Cestodes)
    Flukes (Trematodes)
    Detection
    Preventative Measures
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    24 Viruses and Prions
    Introduction
    Viruses
    Elementary Virology
    Viruses as Agents of Foodborne Illness
    Bacteriophages in the Dairy Industry
    Beneficial Uses of Viruses
    Prions
    A Short History of the Prion
    Prion Biology
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought
    SECTION IV Control of Microorganisms in Food

    25 Chemical Antimicrobials
    Introduction
    Factors That Affect Antimicrobial Activity
    Organic Acids
    Parabenzoic Acids
    Nitrites
    Phosphates
    Sodium Chloride
    Water Activity
    Disinfectants
    Sulfites
    Chlorine
    Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
    Peroxides
    Ozone
    Naturally Occurring Antimicrobials
    Lysozyme
    Lactoferrin and Other Iron-Binding Proteins
    Avidin
    Spices and Their Essential Oils
    Onions and Garlic
    Isothiocyanates
    Phenolic Compounds
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    26 Biologically Based Preservation and Probiotic Bacteria
    Introduction
    Biopreservation by Controlled Acidification
    Bacteriocins
    General Characteristics
    Bacteriocin Applications in Foods
    Probiotic Bacteria
    The Human GI Tract Is a Microbial Ecosystem
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    27 Physical Methods of Food Preservation
    Introduction
    Physical Dehydration Processes
    Drying
    Freeze-Drying
    Cool Storage
    Controlled-Atmosphere Storage
    Modified-Atmosphere Packaging
    Freezing and Frozen Storage
    Preservation by Heat Treatments
    Technological Fundamentals
    Thermobacteriology
    Calculating Heat Processes for Foods
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    28 Nonthermal Processing
    Introduction
    Acceptance
    High-Pressure Processing
    Ozone
    Ultraviolet Light
    Pulsed Electric Fields and Pulsed Light
    Oscillating Magnetic Fields
    Ultrasound
    Conclusions
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought

    29 Sanitation and Related Practices
    Introduction
    Food Safety Objectives
    Good Manufacturing Practices
    General Provisions (Subpart A)
    Buildings and Facilities (Subpart B)
    Equipment (Subpart C)
    Production and Process Controls (Subpart E)
    DALs (Subpart G)
    Sanitation
    SSOPs
    HACCP
    Conclusions
    Summary
    Suggested reading
    Questions for critical thought
    Critical Thinking Skills

    Useful Websites for Food Safety Information

    Glossary
    Answers to Crossword Puzzles
    Answers to Selected Questions for Critical Thought
    Index