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Infrared Spectroscopy

Edition:
1st
Author(s):
James M. Thompson
ISBN:
9789814774789
Format:
Hardback
Publication Date:
February 01, 2018
Content Details:
196 pages
Language:
English

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  • About the Book

    Book Summary

    It is estimated that there are about 10 million organic chemicals known, and about 100,000 new organic compounds are produced each year. Some of these new chemicals are made in the laboratory and some are isolated from natural products. The structural determination of these compounds is the job of the chemist. There are several instrumental techniques used to determine the structures of organic compounds. These include NMR, UV/visible, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. Of all the instrumental techniques listed, infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are the two most popular techniques, mainly because they tend to be less expensive and give us the most structural information.
    This book is an introductory text designed to acquaint undergraduate and graduate students with the basic theory and interpretative techniques of infrared spectroscopy. Much of the material in this text has been used over a period of several years for teaching courses in materials characterization and chemical analysis. It presents the infrared spectra of the major classes of organic compounds and correlates the infrared bands (bond vibrations) of each spectrum with the structural features of the compound it represents. This has been done for hydrocarbons, organic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, anhydrides, phenols, amines, and amides. The text discusses the origin of the fragments, techniques, innovations, and applications in infrared spectroscopy. It is interspersed with many illustrations, examples, an adequate but not overwhelming bibliography, and problems for students. It will serve as a lecture text for a one-semester course in infrared spectroscopy or can be used to teach the infrared spectroscopy portion of a broader course in material characterization and chemical analysis.

    Features

      All undergraduate and graduate students majoring in chemistry are required to have an understanding of infrared spectroscopy. Organic and analytical chemistry majors must have a greater understanding of how to use spectroscopy and spectrometry in the structural determination of organic compounds.

      It is estimated that there are about 10 million organic chemicals known, and about 100,000 new organic compounds are produced each year. Some of these new chemicals are made in the laboratory and some are isolated from natural products. The structural determination of these compounds is the job of the chemist. Once the structure is determined, we have information on how to synthesize the chemical and how it reacts. An example is aspirin. This compound was first isolated from the bark of a certain tree. We now make aspirin it in the laboratory. Without the structure, aspirin could not have been made in the laboratory. There are many examples like aspirin. The structures of compounds often give us information about the uses of the compound.

      There are several instrumental techniques used to determine the structures of organic compounds. These include nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), UV/visible, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. Of all the instrumental techniques listed, infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are the two most popular techniques, mainly because they tend to be less expensive and give the most structural information.

  • Contents

    Some Fundamentals of Infrared Spectroscopy
    Introduction
    The Energy of Electromagnetic Radiation
    Information That May Be Obtained from the Analysis of Infrared Spectra
    Comparison Techniques
    Fundamental Vibrations
    Non-Fundamental Vibrations
    Predicting the Number of Fundamental Vibrations
    The Force Constant
    Some Theoretical Concepts
    Basic Sample Preparation
    Other Sampling Techniques
    Some Suggestions and Comments on the Interpretation of Infrared Spectra

    The Analysis of Infrared Spectra
    Hydrocarbons (Straight Chain)
    Hydrocarbons (Branched Chain)
    Hydrocarbons (Cyclic)
    Alkenes
    Alkynes
    Ethers (Alkyl–Alkyl)
    Ethers (Aryl–Alkyl)
    Aliphatic Halides
    Amines
    Ketones and Aldehydes
    Alcohols
    Organic Acids
    Acid Halides
    Amides
    Esters
    Lactones
    Anhydrides
    Nitriles
    Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    Salts of Carboxylic Acid
    The Effects of Chelation on the Carbonyl Absorption
    Phosphines, Phosphites, Phosphonates and Phosphates
    Thioalcohols and Thiophenols
    Silanes
    Boranes
    Sulfones, Sulfates, Sulfonic Acids (and Their Salts), Sulfites and Sulfoxides

    Techniques, Innovations, and Applications in Infrared Spectroscopy
    Advances in Infrared Spectroscopy
    Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
    The Michelson Interferometer
    The FTIR Microscope and Microsampling Techniques
    Reflective Spectra
    Specular or External Reflectance
    Grazing Incidence Reflectance
    Reflective–Absorption Spectra
    Diffuse-Reflectance Spectra
    Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR)
    Theory of the ATR Cell
    Quantitative Infrared Analysis
    Combined Thermogravimetric Analysis and FTIR (TG/FTIR)
    The TG/FTIR Interface
    GC/MS, GC/FTIR and GC/MS/FTIR
    The GC/MS and GC/FTIR Interfaces

    Problems in Infrared Spectroscopy

    Appendix